According to localtimezone, the language of the Uzbeks is considered a modern continuation of the Jagatai (Djagataic language and literature) and forms with the New Uyghur (Uyghur language and literature)) the southeast group of the Turkic languages. The Iranian influence on Uzbek is significant, as is the Russian influence on the vocabulary of modern non-fiction. The dialects, which are also represented in Afghanistan and East Turkestan (Chinese autonomous region Sinkiang) outside Uzbekistan, are partly northwest Turkish (Kipchak-Uzbek) and southwest Turkish (Ogusian-Uzbek) in character. The standard language is heavily Iranized in the vowels (limited vowel harmony). Conversely, Uzbek dialects have long had an impact on neighboring Tajik dialects (which are part of the Iranian languages). Uzbek is the official language in Uzbekistan. The Arabic alphabet was used until 1929 (still in use in Afghanistan), the Latin alphabet until 1940, and then the Cyrillic alphabet;
Uzbek literature includes folk poetry, the motifs of which are related to those of other Turkic peoples (epics, including the Alpamysh epic and Köroghlu). In art literature, the late Djagatan phase changes into the early Uzbek phase. From 1910 onwards the Jadids [in Arabic-Persian usul-i jadid “new method”] began to modernize literature in terms of themes and forms. Their representatives Behbudiy (* 1875, † 1919), Fitrat (* 1886, † 1938), Cho’lpon (* 1897, † 1938) and Abdulla Qodiriy (* 1894, † 1938) had, despite sharp attacks, up to their deaths or theirs Execution in 1938 held a prominent place in literature. Qodiriys Prose has been reprinted since 1958, the works of the other authors only after 1990. As a poet and prose writer of the first Soviet period are among others. H. H. Niyoziy, G’afur G’ulom (* 1903, † 1966) and Ajbek should be mentioned. Since 1960 the poets Erkin Vohidov (* 1936), Abdulla Oripov (* 1941), Rauf Parfi (* 1943, † 2005) and the prose writers Said Ahmad (* 1920, † 2007), Shukrullo (* 1943), Pirimqul Qodirov (* 1928) and Tog’ay Murod (* 1948, † 2003) great recognition.
Samarkand, Uzbek Samarqand, regional capital in Uzbekistan, 720 m above sea level, in a river oasis of the Seravshan, (2014) 509,000 residents.
Second most important cultural and economic center in the country after Tashkent; two universities, four colleges, several research institutes, observatory, several museums, opera, theater; Supply industry and equipment manufacturing (parts for motor vehicles and refrigerators), chemical (phosphate fertilizer production) and textile industry (cotton processing, silk goods and carpet production), leather, tobacco and food industries, production of porcelain goods; important tourist center. In the Samarkand area cotton and wheat cultivation, sericulture. Transport hub on the Trans-Caspian Railway and on the Tashkent – Termez highway, airport.
Significant buildings in the old town are: the Bibi-Khanym Mosque (1399–1404; partly destroyed) at the Tashkenter Gate and the Gur-Emir mausoleum (completed in 1404/05, built as a burial place for the Timurids; including the tombs of Timur) in the south and Ulug Beg) as well as two other old mausoleums. On the central Registanplatz are the Ulug-Beg Medrese (1417-20), the Schir-Dor-Medrese (1619-36) and the Tillja-Kari-Medrese (1646-60). On the northeastern edge of the city there is a grave road (Shah-e Sinda), a large complex of 13 mausoleums and mosques, mainly from the Timurid period with a large entrance portal of Ulug Beg (1434/35) and further north in Afrasiab the famous observatory of Ulug Beg(Completed in 1428/29). As the »intersection of world cultures«, Samarkand is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
In the north of today’s Samarkand (district Afrasiab) was in the 4th century BC. The city of Marakanda (capital of the Persian province of Sogdiana), the 329 BC. Was conquered by Alexander the Great and 711 AD by the Arabs. Since the 9th century Samarkand was under the rule of the Samanids, from the 11th century under that of the Seljuks and at the beginning of the 13th century under that of the Charism Shahs; In 1220 the city was conquered and destroyed by Genghis Khan. Timur made Samarkand his capital in 1369 and made it one of the most beautiful and important cities of its time. In 1500 Samarkand was conquered by the Uzbek Shaibanids, who moved the residence to Bukhara in 1557. After that Samarkand was only provincial capital within the Bukhara Khanate, with which it came to Russia in 1868; 1924–30 capital of the Uzbek SSR.
Namangan, regional capital in Uzbekistan, in the Fergana Basin on the Northern Fergana Canal, (2014) 475 700 residents.
University, College of Industry and Technology, Medrese (1910), Natural History Museum; Cotton processing, natural silk weaving, man-made fiber production, electrotechnical, textile, clothing and food industries, airport; Oil and gas production in the Namangan area.
Andizhan Andižan [- ʒ at] Uzbek Andijon [ – d ʒ on ], regional capital in Uzbekistan, in the south-eastern Fergana Valley, 450 m above sea level, surrounded by a cotton-growing region, (2014) 403 900 residents.
Leading educational institutions are university, medical college, engineering college. The city is the birthplace of the Timurid prince Babur (museum). Andizhan is an industrial center with mechanical engineering, electronic and chemical industry, cotton and fruit processing; nearby oil and gas production. At Andizhan there is a reservoir and a hydroelectric power station on Karadarja.
The city was largely destroyed by an earthquake in 1902. On May 13, 2005, President Karimov had a local uprising bloodily suppressed by the Uzbek government troops. Allegedly, the uprising is said to have been triggered by Islamist terrorists.
Nukus, capital of the Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan in Uzbekistan, on the Amu Darya above the now largely dry delta, (2014) 295 200 residents.
University (founded 1979), Institute for the History, Language and Literature of the Karakalpaks, Savitzki Art Museum (Russian Aventgarde), History Museum; Building material, textile (cotton processing, felt production), light and food industry (including wine).