Failed (October 26, 1961) the attempt to form a government of national union, wanted by the new President of the Republic gen. Gursel, the head of the Republican People’s Party I. Inönü fell back on November 19 to a two-party coalition with the Justice Party, the new party that had taken up the legacy of the dissolved Democratic Party of Menderes and that in the general elections of 16 October had registered consents of a certain importance. Despite the difficulties of collaboration created by the two parties associated by the diversity of political orientation, the four years of life (November 1961-October 1965) of the Inönü government were positive, especially for the initiatives in the economic and social field: first five-year plan, legislation on the right to strike, on trade unions and collective labor agreements, elaboration of an agrarian reform project, signature on 12 September 1963 of an association agreement with the European Economic Community (EEC) which, entered into force on 10 December 1964, provided for the outcome of a customs union at the end of a four-year preparatory phase and a twelve-year transitional phase. In foreign policy, close relations with the United States within the framework of the Atlantic alliance were accompanied by the commitment to improve the dialogue, which until then was rather tense, with the Soviet Union, particularly in its commercial aspects. it provided for the opening of a customs union at the end of a preparatory phase of four years and a transitional phase of twelve years. In foreign policy, close relations with the United States within the framework of the Atlantic alliance were accompanied by the commitment to improve the dialogue, which until then was rather tense, with the Soviet Union, particularly in its commercial aspects. it provided for the opening of a customs union at the end of a preparatory phase of four years and a transitional phase of twelve years. In foreign policy, close relations with the United States within the framework of the Atlantic alliance were accompanied by the commitment to improve the dialogue, which until then was rather tense, with the Soviet Union, particularly in its commercial aspects.
In the political elections of 11 October 1965, the Justice Party, headed by R. Gümüshyala in the previous November, won the absolute majority of the votes, allowing Demirel to form a single-party government. This coincided with a particularly fruitful period for the development of the Turkish economy, indicated among other things by the significant increase in national income, by the industrialization effort, reflected in the second five-year plan of 1968, with the construction of dams, steel mills, refineries also outside the traditional Istanbul-Izmit industrial axis; a Soviet loan of 200 million dollars for the realization of seven industrial projects also interested the large iron and steel complex of Iskenderun. When, in the subsequent general elections of October 12, 1969, the Justice Party expanded the 1965 success, winning 266 of the 450 seats in the National Assembly, it seemed that after the Inönü and Menderes eras, the Turkey was oriented towards a longer “era Demirel “. But the strength of this quickly fell apart after the elections. On February 14, 1970 he lost the absolute majority due to the defection of 41 deputies of his party headed by S. Bilgiç, who soon after gave birth to the New Democratic Party; at the same time, the first symptoms of economic recession and inflation appeared (in August the lira was devalued by 66%), which exasperated internal social tensions, especially in the countryside, and accused a type of development that had favored L’ industrial oligarchy and speculative finance capital, both domestic and international. Strikes, student protests, multiplication of extremist groups, occupations of the lands of the aga, factory occupations followed one another in a chain; the old Turk – Is government union (one million members) was joined by a small combative socialist central, the Disk ; the Turkish Workers’ Party, founded in 1965 by young officers, inclined to radicalize its struggle; the Republican People’s Party (the one that dated back to Ataturk), which in 1967 had also had its split by a group formed into the Party of Confidence, sought with the leadership of B. Ecevit (in May 1973 Inönü will retire from the party) to act as interpreter of the unease of the working and middle classes, establishing a social-democratic type program that emphasized agrarian reform, an advanced social security system and a smaller presence of foreign capital.
According to Topschoolsintheusa, the atmosphere of internal tension pushed the military, on March 12, 1971, to a new intervention in political life: they ousted Demirel and formed (March 26) a government of national unity under the presidency of a former people’s republican, N. Erim, with the main task of restoring order. Neither the proclamation twice (April 26 and June 16) of the state of siege, however, nor the dissolution of the Turkish Workers’ Party (July), nor the closure of universities with the most heated protest spirit were able to mitigate political violence: more clashes between extremist groups on the right and left were frequent, the trade union demands more violent, the picture of the parties more confused (among the new formations, N. Erbakan’s National Salvation Party). Erim’s toilet fell on April 17, 1972, and two failed attempts to find a majority in the Assembly for a new government, the military opted, on October 14, 1973, to hold new elections. The vote, without giving an absolute majority to any party, ensured partial success for Ecevit’s Republican People’s Party and to a lesser extent for F. Bozbeyli’s Democratic Party and Erbakan’s National Salvation Party, while greatly crushing Demirel’s party.. Finally, on January 25, 1974, an “unnatural” coalition emerged from the tiring negotiations between the parties between the most classic of secular parties, the People’s Republican Party, and the Salvation Party, which demanded the return of Turkey to Islamic traditions. The coalition lasted eight months, experiencing difficult times on the issues of amnesty of political prisoners (concerning 52,000 of the 68,000 prisoners), approved on May 15, and the authorization of a new left party, the Turkish Socialist Workers’ Party, but resolutely tackling the Cyprus crisis of July 1974. Lost on September 18 government collaboration of the Salvation Party, Ecevit tried in vain to get along with the Democratic Party. The President of the Republic F. Korukürk (in office since March 1973) then fished out, after having tried twice to pass a government of technicians, Demirel, whose party had just joined a Nationalist Front with the other three right-wing parties (National Salvation, Trust, National Movement Party). On April 12, 1975, the new coalition gained the confidence of the National Assembly. This government coalition was confirmed on July 21, 1977 following the early elections of June 5 and after a ministry chaired by Ecevit, head of the relative majority party, did not win the confidence of the National Assembly on July 3. However, he managed to obtain the consent – 229 votes against 218 – of the Assembly, on January 17, 1978, to his coalition government formed thanks to the support of twelve deputies of the Justice Party, whose defection he had provoked on the previous December 30 the fall of the Demirel cabinet. Ecevit set himself as main objectives, in foreign policy, a solution of the open problems with Greece (definition of the respective territorial seas) and, in internal politics, an easing of the serious political-social tension existing in the country. Generalized terrorism (estimated at an average of 20 political assassinations per week) caused, given the impotence of the government, the resignation of some ministers and finally, after the defeat of Republican-People in the partial elections for the Senate in October 1979, those of Ecevit himself. Once again Demirel’s party imposed itself on the government. But a year later (September 12, 1980) a military junta, chaired by General Kenan Evren, took power.