Political and administrative order. – The regime of protectorate, as it was established from 1881 and has been maintained with some changes until today, is the following: the bey retains the sovereign rights, the right of succession is unchanged; the French government is represented in the bey by a general resident, who acts as foreign minister and president of the bey’s ministers. The resident general has under his orders the commanders of the army and navy, who are French and function as ministers of war and navy. The indigenous prime minister is only an intermediary between the bey and the resident general and between the bey and his subjects and is assisted by a minister of the pen; The post of Minister of Justice has also been reserved for a native since 1921, with the assistance of a French director. The post of general secretary of the government established in 1883 and abolished in 1922 was re-established in 1933 (he presides over indigenous affairs, the police, the civil administration personnel, takes care of the presentation of decrees to the bey and their promulgation); he is assisted by an assistant general secretary who acts as director general of the interior. The bey exercises legislative power through his ministers by issuing decrees, which must nevertheless bear the approval of the general resident. Interior. The bey exercises legislative power through his ministers by issuing decrees, which must nevertheless bear the approval of the general resident. Interior. The bey exercises legislative power through his ministers by issuing decrees, which must nevertheless bear the approval of the general resident. For Tunisia government and politics, please check a2zgov.com.
The regency is divided into 5 regional districts which have their headquarters in Tunis, Bizerte, el-Kef, Susa and Sfax. The administration of the territory is twofold: a French organization of contrôles civils (19 in number) which overlaps an indigenous one of caidati (37). Four of these soldiers are located in the military territories of the Tunisian south, which have a special administration.
Tunisian justice is administered by common law courts (cantonal, regional, Wiz ā rah, Chambre des Requêtes), religious courts (sharia for Muslims, rabbinic for Jews); a mixed court provides for the registration of real estate.
In order to involve the people in some way in the administration of public affairs, a Consultative Conference was established in 1891, comprising French and indigenous members; in 1922, following a very violent nationalist agitation, the conference was transformed into a great council (Grand Conseil, in Arabic al – ma ǵ lis al – kab ī r), whose composition has undergone considerable variations: in 1922 there were 18 indigenous members and 44 French; in 1928 they became 26 and 52 respectively; in 1933 they rose to 41 indigenous and 56 French; the election of the members is made with limited suffrage or through minor assemblies: regional councils, councils of caidato, French and indigenous chambers of commerce and industry.
Religion. – The indigenous population is Muslim and religiously dependent on the sheikh ul-islām. However, in 1931 there were 56,242 Jews and the “European” population (195,293 in 1931) is made up almost exclusively of Catholics, who depend on the archbishopric of Carthage (re-established in 1884 and immediately subject to the Holy See). There are also about 400 Orthodox and a number of Anglicans.
Public school. – In 1883, public teaching for non-Muslims was removed from the religious congregations that had exercised it up to then, and was entrusted to a general direction, on which the five hundred government schools of all levels in Tunisia depend. These in 1931 had 83,459 students, of which 19,499 French, 10,281 Italian, 1196 Maltese. In addition to the usual elementary and middle schools (French-type high school), there is a colonial school of agriculture in Tunis. Muslims own a large number of schools, about 1200, and their own Islamic university at the main mosque in Tunis; at this mosque there are about a hundred teachers, distributed among the various degrees of teaching, starting with elementary. The government checks for indigenous a thriving vocational college (Sediki College, founded in 1876). The Italian schools in Tunisia date back to 1821, the year in which two Italians, political exiles, founded a private school there which was also the first European school; the first Italian public school was created by P. Sulema, and subsidized by Luigi Filippo; to remember also that of G. Morpurgo (1840); in 1864 the Italian colony, under the auspices of the first consul of the kingdom, founded the Italian College, which in 1887 became the Collegio Convitto. The first governmental organization of Italian schools in Tunisia dates back to 1888 by Crispi. There are now a total of 40 Italian schools, 20 government schools (scientific high school, technical institute, vocational training school; 17 elementary schools, not only in Tunis, but at the Schooner, in Sfax, in Susa), 20 private; Italian private primary schools are in Mahdia, el-Kef, Reyville, Bu Fiscia, Ferryville, Nabeul, Kelibia. They are largely frequented by Jewish elements.
Finance. – Budgets and public debt. – The main revenues of the Tunisian budget derive from indirect taxes and monopolies (especially tobacco). The main expenses, in millions of francs, are those for financial administration (including public debt service), public works and national education.
At the end of 1932, the public debt amounted to 645.8 million francs.
Money and credit. – The monetary unit is the French franc; the coins are minted in France and have been completely similar to the French ones since 1892; banknotes are issued by the Bank of Algeria (see algeria). The Bank of Tunis is the most important credit institution.