According to the Constitution, Taiwan is a republic. Taiwan’s independence from China is not recognized by the international community. The entire system of organs of power is built on the basis of the Constitution adopted on December 25, 1947.
According to microedu, Taiwan has two cities of central subordination – Taipei and Kaohsiung, Taiwan Province with 5 cities of provincial subordination and 16 counties, and two island counties of Fujian Province.
The largest cities (million people): Taipei, Kaohsiung (1.490), Taichung (0.965), Tainan (0.734), Jilong (0.388), Hsinchu (0.368), Chiayi (0.266).
The state structure is based on five branches of power – legislative, executive, judicial, examination and control, each of which is carried out by one of the chambers (yuan) of the central government. The highest representative body with the right to amend the Constitution is the National Assembly. Until recently, this representative body, in addition to adopting amendments to the Constitution, elected the president and vice president. In 1991, the deputies of the National Assembly of the 1st and 2nd convocations carried out a number of changes to the Constitution on the election of the president by direct popular vote, the expansion of the powers of the National Assembly, the functions of control bodies and the transition to a multi-party system.
The highest body of legislative power is the Legislative Yuan. The highest body of executive power is the Executive Yuan (Cabinet of Ministers). The head of state is President Chen Shui-bian; Vice President Lu Xiulian (Annette Lu). The head of the Executive Yuan is Yu Xikun. The head of the Legislative Yuan is Wang Jinping.
The head of state – the president is elected by direct, equal and secret ballot in one round by a majority of votes. Deputies of the Legislative Yuan are elected by direct, equal and secret suffrage from constituencies and are usually nominated by various political parties and movements. The composition of the Executive Yuan is proposed by the premier and approved by the Legislative Yuan. There are also three more branches of power – the Control Yuan, which is approved by the Legislative Yuan and provides verification of the work of the Executive Yuan, the Judicial Yuan, which provides control over the work of the court and the prosecutor’s office, and the Examination Yuan, which is responsible for conducting exams and certification of government officials.
Executive and legislative power of local administrative units. County governors and mayors of cities are elected by direct vote of the population of the county (city). Deputies to local Legislative Assemblies are also directly elected and nominated, as a rule, by political parties and movements. to the Constitution in the 1990s. amendments were made on the possibility of recalling deputies of the Legislative Yuan and local Legislative Assemblies and on the possibility of holding referendums both on the territory of the entire island as a whole and within individual counties. As a rule, the holding of referendums coincides with the holding of elections to central or local legislative bodies.
The main political parties in Taiwan are: 1) the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), established on September 28, 1986, with a total membership of 450,000 people, DPP chairman Xie Changtin; 2) The Kuomintang (KMT), founded in 1894, has 1.08 million members, and is chaired by Lien Zhan; 3) New Party, founded in August 1993 by some of the leaders of the KMT, dissatisfied with the policy of the party, a total of 68 thousand members, the party chairman is Xie Qida; 4) Qinmindan, or First People’s Party (PPP), created in 2000 after the split of the Kuomintang before the presidential elections, the party’s chairman is Song Chuyu, a former major leader of the Kuomintang; 5) Taiwan Solidarity Union (CST), established on July 31, 2001, the party chairman is elected by the congress for a term of 2 years, the party chairman is Huang Zhuwen.
Leading business organizations. The China Foreign Trade Development Council (CETRA) was established by the government and private industry and business. The council has 37 offices, shopping centers and design centers in 27 countries. He collects information, conducts marketing research, promotes goods on the markets, organizes seminars and consultations, and conducts advanced training for businessmen. The Agriculture Council has 304 local farmers’ associations, 17 irrigation associations, 522 agricultural cooperatives and 40 local fishermen’s associations.
Other public organizations include numerous women’s organizations fighting for women’s rights, such as the Committee for the Protection of Women from Sexual Violence, the Committee for Women’s Rights, the Committee for the Prevention of Domestic Violence; youth organization The Chinese Youth Rescue Group, which works with school and student youth, and other organizations working with certain social groups.
In domestic politics in con. 1990s there was a transfer of power from the hands of the Kuomintang to the opposition DPP, which was headed by the former mayor of Taipei, Chen Shui-bian, who became president in the 2000 elections. In the elections to the Legislative Yuan in 2001, the DPP won, although it had not yet become the majority party. However, in the local elections, the DPP lost its former positions as a result of the creation of the bloc of the KMT, the CMD and the New Party against the DPP. In the January 2002 elections for heads of administrations of county-level cities, the Kuomintang won 225 out of 319 administrative posts at the grassroots level (71%) and 424 seats out of 897 in the elections for representative bodies at the local level.
Since the PRC government views Taiwan as part of its territory and one of its provinces, the prospect of Chinese military force is a major factor in Taiwan’s foreign policy. In the 1990s Taipei offered and offers Beijing a model of a divided country like Germany before 1990 or Korea. Taipei offers a variant of a peaceful solution to the Taiwan issue, provided that both sides recognize a “divided China” and negotiate on an equal footing. He is in favor of further negotiations at the level of the two non-governmental organizations SEF and ARATS. At present, Taiwan is trying to enlist the support of other countries to join the UN and other international organizations. Taiwan maintains diplomatic relations with 28 countries of the world, has 95 representative offices in the capitals and major cities of 62 countries of the world.
In 2001, there were 380 thousand personnel in the Armed Forces, incl. 200 thousand people – Ground forces, 10 thousand people. – military police, 50 thousand people. – Air Force, 120 thousand people. – Navy. For several years, there was a reduction in personnel by 70 thousand people. and decommissioning of the most obsolete models of equipment. In 1992-2002, the military budget decreased from $27.7 billion to $16.5 billion. Under the Conscription Law in Taiwan, all males must complete military service between the ages of 18 and 40. In total, 3 million reservists are registered (or 15% of the population). All of them undergo military training, and in case of war they can be drafted into the army.
The authorities of Taiwan have representation in the Russian Federation within the framework of the Moscow-Taipei Commission for Economic and Cultural Cooperation (established by the Decree on Relations between the Russian Federation and Taiwan on September 15, 1992 and opened in July 1993).