Population of Myanmar
According to Countryaah, the average annual growth rate is 0.56%. Birth rate 19.65‰, infant mortality 72.11 people. per 1000 newborns. Average life expectancy – 55.4 years (women – 57, men – 54). Population structure: 0-14 years old – 28.6%, 15-64 years old – 66.6%, 65 years and older – 4.8%. OK. 80% of the population lives in rural areas. In 1971, Myanmar was awarded the UNESCO Prize for the campaign to eradicate illiteracy, the literacy rate was 83%, by 2000 it had dropped significantly (to 30%).
Ethnic composition (2000): Burmese (Myanmar) – 68%, Shan – 9%, Karen – 7%, Rakhine (Arakanese) – 4%, Chinese – 3%, Mons – 2%, Indians – 2%, other – 5 %. There are 135 nationalities in total, speaking 100 languages and dialects. The official language is Burmese (Myanmar).
The official religion is Buddhism, practiced by 89% of the population. Christians (Baptists and Catholics) make up 4%, Muslims 4%, Hindus 1%, Animists 1%, others 1%.
History of Myanmar
The state of Shrikshetra, which arose with the arrival of the Pyu people in the Irrawaddy valley, was first mentioned in Chinese chronicles in the 6th century. Mon city-states arose even earlier, presumably BC. In the 11th century the Pagan state appeared, which is considered the beginning of the history of Myanmar. The period of the reign of the Pagan dynasty is called the “golden age”, during this period Theravada Buddhism appeared, the Pagan kings built a large city with thousands of pagodas and monasteries along the banks of the Irrawaddy. The Pagan kingdom lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1287, which destroyed the city. Then came a 300-year period of feudal fragmentation, an interregnum with several rival state centers. Under the Taungoo (1587-1752) and Konbaun (1752-1885) dynasties, as a result of aggressive wars, Myanmar was formed as a single state within its current borders. At 18-beginning. 19th centuries
The Burmese Empire was one of the most powerful states in the region. As a result of the three Anglo-Burmese wars of 1825, 1852, and 1885, Myanmar was incorporated into British India and became a separate colony in 1937. Under British control, Myanmar underwent radical administrative changes and the economy was reorganized into a large-scale export economy.
In 1939 Myanmar was the world’s largest exporter of rice. In 1942–45 Myanmar was occupied by Japanese troops. The national liberation movement against the Japanese occupiers and British colonial rule was led by the Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League (ALNS), whose chairman was General Aung San. On January 4, 1948, the independence of Burma was proclaimed. During the period of parliamentary democracy, the civilian government of Prime Minister Wu Nu (1948–62) attempted to build a socialist society on the basis of Buddhism.
In 1962, a military coup took place, the U Nu government was overthrown, power passed into the hands of the Revolutionary Council headed by General Ne Win, and a military dictatorship was established with a one-party system and centralized methods of managing the economy. On the basis of nationalized foreign and national private enterprises, a public sector was created, which plays a large role in the country’s economy. In 1974, a new Constitution was put into effect, the country received a new constitutional name, the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma, the first general elections to the People’s Assembly after 1960 were held, and at the very first meeting of the People’s Assembly, the Revolutionary Council transferred full power to it. The implementation of the Burmese Road to Socialism program did not bring the desired results. The political, which broke out in the summer and autumn of 1988, social and economic crisis led to the collapse of the one-party political structure. As a result of spontaneous actions of the general population for 2 months. three governments fell.
In an environment of extreme instability, accompanied by the deaths of thousands of demonstrators, a military coup took place on September 18 and the State Council for the Restoration of Law and Order (CLOR), headed by Defense Minister General Seo Maung, took power. The Law on the Establishment of a Socialist Economic System (of 1965) was repealed, the words “socialist republic” were removed from the name of the country, and geographical names in English transcription were changed to match the sound in Burmese.