Political and administrative order. – In principle, Morocco is an absolute monarchy, and the sultan exercises supreme civil and religious authority there. However, the treaty of Fez of March 30, 1912 placed Morocco under the protectorate of France, and the Franco-Spanish convention of November 27, 1912 established the limits of the area of influence reserved for Spain in northern Morocco. Another convention of 18 December 1923 (amended on 25 July 1928), between Great Britain, France and Spain, established a special regime for Tangier and its territory.
In the French area, by far the largest, the sultan usually resides (usually in Rabat) with his government. The authority is exercised there in effect by France, represented by a general resident who is at the same time Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Sultan and head of the French administration. This has developed a set of laws, or dahirs, issued by the sultan, but promulgated and enforced by the resident general. France has fulfilled its threefold task of reorganizing Morocco from the administrative, judicial and financial sides; he endeavored to restore ancient organisms by controlling their functioning; and he created the great public services that his legal system required. The local indigenous administration exercised by the qā’id, appointed by the sultan, is placed under the control of the civil authority or the military authority according to the regions; as the pacification asserts itself, the civil zone is extended.
In the Spanish zone (approximately 13,125 square miles) the sultan’s powers are delegated to a lieutenant (khalīfah), chosen by the sultan himself from among two candidates designated by the Spanish government; this administration is controlled by a high commissioner who resides in Tetuán.
The Tangier area (approximately 225 square miles) is declared permanently neutral and demilitarized. The regime is autonomous; legislative power is exercised by an international assembly of 27 members. A right of veto and other faculties belong to a control committee, composed of the consuls of the signatory powers of the Pact of Algeciras (see), of 7 April 1906, who have adhered to the subsequent conventions (Italy, France, Great Britain, Spain and throughout 1933). The sultan is represented by a mandūb (commissioner), who is ex officio president of the international assembly.
Armed Forces. – French area. – The territory is divided into 5 divisions, three garrisoned by 1 infantry division, two by 1 mixed brigade. The occupation corps is composed of a superior command of the troops and the following troops, metropolitan (French and North African) and colonial: 3 infantry divisions; 2 mixed brigades; 17 infantry regiments (2 Zouaves, 3 Algerian marksmen, 6 Moroccan marksmen, 2 Senegalese marksmen, 1 colonial infantry, 3 foreigners); 1 battalion of light infantry (discipline department); 2 artillery regiments (1 from Africa, 1 colonial); 3 engineering battalions; 1 tank battalion; 1 group of armored car guns; 3 train squadrons; 2 Saharan companies; auxiliary formations (goums mixed, Moroccan haras service); general and special services. The recruitment of indigenous regulars is voluntary (for a period of 2 years, and subsequent steals). For Morocco military, please check militarynous.com.
Spanish area. – The territory is divided into 4 military districts. The Spanish military forces in Morocco are made up of: a command in chief; metropolitan troops (2,250 officers and 55,000 troops); indigenous troops (excluding irregular: 500 officers and 14,000 troops); foreign troops (6000 men). Metropolitan troops include: 2 line infantry regiments; 2 mountain half brigades of African hunters; 1 regiment of horse hunters; 4 artillery regiments (mostly light); 1 squadron of 6 squadrons of reconnaissance aircraft; services. The indigenous troops include: 5 mixed groups of infantry and cavalry; 6 mehalle khalīfiane (mixed infantry and cavalry), police forces and any irregular formations. Foreign troops include 2 legions of infantry, each on 4 flags. The recruitment of regular indigenous people is voluntary (stops from 3 to 5 years, and subsequent steals).
Religion. – The indigenous population adheres almost entirely to Islam. Catholics are not very numerous. 64,000 faithful (according to statistics from Propaganda Fide) depend (according to statistics from Propaganda Fide) 64,000 faithful (June 30, 1930; 63,400 in 1929) from the apostolic vicariate of Morocco, established in 1859 and entrusted to the Spanish Franciscans in 1908, with residence in Tangier and jurisdiction in the Spanish area. For French Morocco, the apostolic vicariate of Rabat was established in 1923, also entrusted to the Franciscans, with 108,103 faithful (June 1929).
Finances. – French area. – Indirect taxes (especially customs duties and consumption taxes), direct taxes and monopolies constitute the major income chapters of the budget, the main expenses are those paid for the service of public debt, for public education, for public works, agriculture, post offices and telegraphs, etc. Only from 1931-32, due to the general crisis, did expenditure exceed revenue, despite the decreed tax aggravations, and it was necessary to resort to loans and the reserve fund to balance the budget, while in previous years there had been had considerable leftovers which had enabled the constitution of a considerable reserve.
The public debt of Morocco (which at the end of 1931 was 1750 million francs) is made up of two loans taken out before the establishment of the protectorate (of 62 million francs in 1904 and 101 in 1910) and another 8 contracts after 1912 for a total amount of 2,858 million. The protectorate is also burdened with an indirect debt, as it has guaranteed some loans contracted by private companies (railway companies, electricity companies, ports, etc.) or has ensured their service.
Since 1920, when the indigenous Hassani currency was withdrawn from circulation, the monetary unit is the Moroccan franc, which was given the same gold base as the French one in 1928. As of December 31, 1932, the circulation of the notes of the State Bank of Morocco amounted to 611 million Moroccan francs. The main credit institutions, besides the State Bank, are the Commercial Bank of Morocco, the Algerian Company, the Land Bank of Algeria and Tunisia, etc.
Spanish area. – The budget of the Spanish area of Morocco fluctuates around 50 million pesetas and is balanced thanks to a considerable contribution (over half of the revenues) from the Spanish government. The circulation consists of pesetas and silver Hassan coins.
Tangier area. – The budget of the Tangier area is mainly based on customs duties and consumption taxes. Income and expenses balance around 20 million francs. The circulation consists of French francs, Spanish pesetas and Hassan coins.