History of Norway
In ancient times, the territory of modern Norway was inhabited by tribes of Germanic origin. In con. 5 – ser. 11th century under the conditions of the process of class stratification and the formation of the state, the aggressive campaigns of squads acquired wide dimensions. This period is called the Viking Age. The Vikings reached North America, ahead of H. Columbus by 5 centuries. At the turn of the 9th-10th centuries. the unification of the country began, which was headed by King Harald Horfager (Fair-haired). From con. 10th c. Christianization began, in the next 3 centuries there was a strengthening of royal power and the Roman Catholic Church. Norway is one of the few countries in Europe where the peasants did not know serfdom.
From con. 13th c. the crisis of agriculture began, which was replaced by a long decline in the entire economy after the epidemics of the plague – the “black death”. According to the Kalmar Union (1397), N. until 1523 was in a general alliance with Denmark and Sweden under the auspices of Denmark. After 1537 it was turned into a Danish province. The Danish king introduced the Evangelical Lutheran Church as the official religion.
From Ser. 17th century In Norway, an economic recovery began, which was facilitated by the collapse of the Hanseatic League. In Europe, the demand for Norwegian ore, timber, ships is increasing. This spurred the development of the industry. The turning point in the new history of the country came in 1814. By the decision of the anti-Napoleonic coalition, Norway was taken from Denmark and transferred to Sweden for its merits in the war against Napoleon. The Norwegian population refused to accept the accession to Sweden. On May 17, 1814, at the Constituent Assembly in Eidsvoll, the Constitution of the independent Norwegian state (Eidsvoll Constitution) was proclaimed. However, Sweden, with the support of the great powers, by military force in the summer of 1814 forced Norway to agree to a union under the leadership of the Swedish king, but with broad internal autonomy.
Despite the industrial rise of the In the 19th century, the first mass movement of agricultural workers and the poor (Khusmen) unfolded in the country. Population growth outstripped the pace of industrialization, which contributed to mass emigration to North America. In con. 19th century in the development of the economy there have been significant shifts associated with the use of machines, electricity, electrochemistry. In the 1870s the first parties and trade unions arose. Norway was the first in Europe to introduce free and compulsory education for children aged 7 to 14 (1860).
On June 7, 1905, at the peak of public upsurge, the Norwegian Storting (parliament) terminated the union with Sweden, and in August the monarchy was preserved in a referendum, the Danish prince Karl was elected king (under the name Haakon VII). During the 1st World War, Norway pursued a policy of neutrality, which contributed to economic development. The world economic crisis of 1929–33 hit the country hard, and the influence of the radicals increased. After the beginning During the Second World War, Norway declared neutrality, but on April 9, 1940, it was treacherously attacked by Nazi Germany, which, with the help of V. Quisling (Minister of Defense) and his supporters, managed to capture the country. The king and the government in exile were in London. The beginning of the liberation of Norway was laid by the Soviet Army, which in October 1944 liberated Finnmark during the Petsamo-Kirkenes operation.
In the post-war period, thanks to the reformist policy of the authorities and the stubborn struggle of the workers, it was possible to create a developed system of social security, the so-called. welfare state model. The Norwegian Social Democrats were the first in the 1960s. began to introduce democracy in the workplace. In the context of a split in the ruling circles after the victory of a broad extra-parliamentary movement in the referendums of 1972 and 1994, the country was twice forced to refuse to join the EU, although it fully participates in economic integration with the central integration zone.
Science and culture in Norway
According to searchforpublicschools, the modern system of education begins with preschool institutions for children aged 5-6. Compulsory primary education is 9 years. Secondary general educational institutions are 4-5-year gymnasiums. Education in the gymnasium ends with the delivery of the so-called. student exams, which give the right to enter the university. There are four universities in the system of higher education: in Oslo (founded in 1811), Bergen (in 1948), Trondheim (in 1968), and Tromsø (in 1972). In the 2002/03 academic year, 35,000 students studied at all universities.
St. 300 research institutes, 300 laboratories of industrial and commercial firms and approx. 40 scientific societies; St. 150 research institutes specialized in the field of natural sciences. The country has achieved high efficiency in the field of R&D, more than half of the annual increase in its industrial output is achieved through innovation. Organizational research institutions are divided into state (about 1/3), university (about 2/3) and independent (less than 10%). The universities in Oslo and Trondheim have the most developed research base.
The scientific policy of the state and the financing of R&D are developed by the State Committee for Science and Technology with the help of the Advisory Council for Scientific Research (founded in 1965), approved by the Storting. Along with budget appropriations (60%), various public and private funds (the F. Nansen Foundation, A. Yare, and others) are widely used in R&D financing.
Norway has become famous in the world for the outstanding achievements of its culture. L. Holdberg (1684-1754) is considered the father of Norwegian literature, although the modern period begins with the works of H. Vigelan (1808-45). The works of writers B. Björnson (1832-1910), G. Ibsen (1828-1906), K. Hamsun (1859-1952), S. Unset (1882-1949) are already at the beginning. 20th century were known outside their homeland and continue to be published in foreign languages today. There are Norwegian names among the brilliant artists (E. Munch), singers (K. Flagstad), musicians (E. Grieg) of the world level.
The policy in the field of culture is aimed at making cultural values accessible to all residents and, in conditions of close mutual exchange with other peoples, to preserve their national flavor. Special support is given to literature, ca. 1/3 of books are published with state support. All libraries are free (network 1.5 thousand), meet high standards. The State Touring Theater and the State Mobile Art Gallery also serve the purposes of disseminating cultural achievements. The leading role in the field of popularization is played by the state-owned Norwegian Radio and Television. The state subsidizes creative unions, exhibitions, museums, festivals (Bergen Festival). The role of the state in the construction and maintenance of cultural, entertainment and museum premises is important.