Geography of Aroostook County, Maine

Geography and Climate of Aroostook County, Maine

Aroostook County, located in the northeastern corner of Maine, is a region defined by its vast forests, rolling hills, and abundant waterways. Encompassing an area of approximately 6,829 square miles, it is the largest county in Maine and one of the largest in the United States. From its rugged terrain to its scenic lakes and rivers, Aroostook County offers residents and visitors a unique blend of natural beauty, outdoor recreation, and rural charm. Check topmbadirectory to learn more about the state of Maine.

Topography and Landforms:

Aroostook County’s topography is diverse, ranging from low-lying river valleys to forested hills and mountains. The county is part of the Appalachian Mountain range, with the northern portion characterized by the foothills of the Canadian Shield. Elevations in Aroostook County vary widely, with the highest point being Mars Hill at 1,748 feet above sea level.

The county is intersected by numerous rivers and streams, including the Aroostook River, St. John River, and Allagash River. These waterways have played a crucial role in the region’s history, serving as transportation routes for Native American tribes, early European settlers, and the logging industry.


Aroostook County experiences a humid continental climate with cold, snowy winters and warm summers. The county’s northern location and elevation contribute to its relatively cool temperatures throughout the year. Winters are long and cold, with average temperatures in January ranging from the single digits to the low 20s Fahrenheit (-13 to -6 degrees Celsius). Snowfall is abundant, with annual totals averaging over 100 inches in some areas.

Summer temperatures are milder, with average highs in July reaching the low to mid-70s Fahrenheit (around 23-24 degrees Celsius). While summers are short, they are typically pleasant, with ample sunshine and low humidity levels. Spring and fall are characterized by fluctuating temperatures and changing weather patterns, with cool nights and mild days.

Rivers and Lakes:

Aroostook County is home to numerous rivers, lakes, and ponds, which provide important habitat for fish, wildlife, and plant species. The Aroostook River, the county’s namesake, flows for over 100 miles through the heart of the region, serving as a vital waterway for recreation, transportation, and hydroelectric power generation.

The St. John River forms part of Aroostook County’s northern boundary, meandering through the remote wilderness of northern Maine and southern Canada. The river offers opportunities for canoeing, kayaking, and fishing, as well as scenic views of the surrounding forests and mountains.

In addition to rivers, Aroostook County is dotted with thousands of lakes and ponds, ranging in size from small backwoods ponds to large, navigable bodies of water. Some of the most prominent lakes include Eagle Lake, Long Lake, and Portage Lake, which offer opportunities for boating, swimming, and fishing.

Vegetation and Ecosystems:

The natural vegetation of Aroostook County consists primarily of northern hardwood and coniferous forests, including species such as maple, birch, spruce, fir, and pine. These forests provide habitat for a variety of wildlife, including moose, deer, black bear, and numerous bird species.

Wetlands, bogs, and marshes are also common throughout Aroostook County, particularly in low-lying areas and along the shores of lakes and rivers. These wetland habitats support unique plant and animal species adapted to the region’s cold, moist conditions.

Agriculture is another important land use in Aroostook County, particularly in the southern part of the region where fertile soils and a relatively mild climate support a variety of crops. Potatoes are the most significant agricultural product, with Aroostook County being one of the largest potato-producing regions in the United States.

Human Impact and Development:

Despite its vast size, Aroostook County has a relatively small population, with much of the land being sparsely populated and undeveloped. The county’s economy is largely based on agriculture, forestry, and outdoor recreation, with logging and wood products manufacturing also playing significant roles.

The city of Presque Isle serves as the commercial and cultural hub of Aroostook County, offering amenities such as shopping centers, healthcare facilities, and educational institutions. Other communities in the county, including Houlton, Caribou, and Fort Kent, provide additional services and recreational opportunities for residents and visitors.

While much of Aroostook County remains rural and undeveloped, there has been some residential and commercial development in recent years, particularly around the larger towns and along major transportation corridors. Efforts have been made to balance growth with conservation and environmental stewardship, particularly in sensitive areas such as wetlands and wildlife habitats.

In conclusion, Aroostook County, Maine, offers a diverse and picturesque landscape characterized by forests, rivers, lakes, and rolling hills. From its rugged wilderness to its fertile farmland, the county embodies the natural beauty and outdoor recreational opportunities that define northern Maine. As stewards of the land, it is essential to promote responsible land use and ensure the long-term sustainability of Aroostook County’s natural resources for future generations to enjoy.