The official name is the Republic of Zambia.
It is located in the southeast of Central Africa. The area is 752.6 thousand km2, the population is 10.87 million people. (2002). The official language is English. The capital is Lusaka (1670 thousand people, 2002). Public holiday – Independence Day October 24 (since 1964). The monetary unit is the kwacha (equal to 100 ngwee).
Member of the UN (since 1964), AU (since 1964), etc., is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.
Geography of Zambia
It is located between 22° and 33° east longitude and 8° and 18° south latitude. Has no access to the sea. It borders in the north with the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Tanzania, in the east with Malawi, in the southeast with Mozambique, in the south with Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia, in the west with Angola. Zambia is located on the East African Plateau, cut by river valleys and having a slightly undulating relief 1000-1350 m high with separate mountains and ridges, the highest point is in the Muchinga Mountains (2301 m). World-wide deposits of cobalt (500,000 tons) and copper (54,000 tons) ores have been discovered; there are reserves of lead-zinc (872 thousand tons), manganese (1 million tons) ores, iron ore (176 million tons), coal (130 million tons), ores containing silver, cadmium, selenium, vanadium, germanium, rhenium ; emeralds. Red ferrallitic, red-brown and red-brown soils predominate. The climate is subequatorial. The average temperature of the warmest month (October) is + 23-27°C, the coldest (July) + 15-20°C. Precipitation falls from 600 to 1400 mm per year. Most of the rivers belong to the Zambezi River basin, which is known for one of the largest Victoria Falls in the world. Lakes: Bangweulu, Tanganyika, Mweru. Vegetation: dry tropical forest (miombo) and savannas prevail. Fauna: large herbivores (elephants, rhinos, African buffaloes, antelopes, zebras), predators – lions, leopards, jackals, hyenas; reptiles (crocodiles, snakes). Mver. Vegetation: dry tropical forest (miombo) and savannas prevail. Fauna: large herbivores (elephants, rhinos, African buffaloes, antelopes, zebras), predators – lions, leopards, jackals, hyenas; reptiles (crocodiles, snakes). Mver. Vegetation: dry tropical forest (miombo) and savannas prevail. Fauna: large herbivores (elephants, rhinos, African buffaloes, antelopes, zebras), predators – lions, leopards, jackals, hyenas; reptiles (crocodiles, snakes).
The population of Zambia
According to Countryaah, the population density of Zambia is 14 people per 1 km2 (2000). The annual population growth in 2000–02 was 1.8%. Birth rate 41.01%, mortality 21.89%, infant mortality 89 people. per 1000 newborns. Average life expectancy is 37 years. Sex and age structure: 0-14 years – 47% (ratio of men and women 1.01), 15-64 years – 50% (0.99), 65 years and older – 3% (0.74). The ratio of men and women in the entire population is 0.99. Among the adult population, 21.1% are illiterate (men – 14.3%, women – 27.4%).
98.7% of the population are Africans, representatives of more than 70 people belonging to the Bantu language group: Bembe (43%), Tonga (17%), Luvale (12%), Malawi (12%), Lozi (10%) and etc. The official language is English. Of the local languages (more than 80), the most common are Bembe, Tonga, Lozi, Nyanja, Luvale, Lunda, Kaonde.
From 50 to 75% of the country’s population profess Christianity, 24-49% – Islam and Hinduism, 1% – local traditional beliefs.
History of Zambia
In the pre-colonial period, several state and tribal associations existed on the territory of modern Zambia, in particular Marawi and Barotse (later Barotseland). In con. 18th century the Portuguese penetrate here, and in the 19th century. — the English. Since 1899, the British South African Company has administered the territory, which in 1911 received the name Northern Rhodesia. From 1924–64 the country was a British protectorate, and from 1953–63 it was part of the colonial Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Since 1948, the African National Congress (ANC) party has taken the lead in the national liberation movement, and since 1959, the United National Independence Party (UNIP, leader K. Kaunda). In the first general parliamentary elections in January 1964, she won a landslide victory. The first African government that was formed by the UNIP was headed by Kaunda. October 24, 1964 Northern Rhodesia became the Republic of Zambia. In the late 1960s – early. 70s the country developed in the conditions of intensifying internal political struggle and growing confrontation between the authorities and the opposition. In August 1973, a one-party system was established in Zambia, which was legally enshrined in the Constitution. The only ruling party was the United National Independence Party, led by Kaunda. The economic crisis of the 1980s and the implementation of structural adjustment programs developed by IMF experts worsened the situation of workers and intensified the anti-government activities of trade unions. In 1990, the dissatisfaction of the population with the situation in the country increased, mass demonstrations began demanding a departure from the authoritarian regime. Under pressure from the public in November 1990, the National Assembly repealed the article of the current Constitution, reinforcing the existence of a one-party system in the country, and adopted a law on a multi-party system. The first parliamentary and presidential elections under the new conditions, held on November 2, 1991, led to the victory of F. Chiluba, the leader of the Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (DMD) formed in December 1990. A course was taken to denationalize the economy, attract foreign capital, and encourage private entrepreneurship. In August 1993, a split occurred in the ranks of the DMD, which significantly undermined its position and led to increased political instability in the country. In January 1996, 8 opposition parties formed a coalition, ready to fight for power. He headed the association of Kaunda. However, the new Constitution (May 1996) included discriminatory amendments that prevented him from running for president: only Zambians of at least the third generation were allowed to run for president. The opposition boycotted the elections held on November 18, 1997, in which the DMD won 130 out of 150 seats in parliament, and Chiluba became president again. In the beginning. 2001 attempts to change the Constitution and give Chiluba the opportunity to run for a third term caused an outcry. In the elections to the con. 2001 was won by the representative of the DMD – L. Mvanavasa. In October 2003, a national meeting of representatives of all strata of Zambian society was held, at which the political and socio-economic situation in the country was discussed and recommendations were made to the leadership of the republic.