Geography of Ukraine
It is located in the temperate latitudes of the northern hemisphere between 22°09′ and 41°13′ east longitude and 44°23′ and 52°23′ north latitude. It is washed from the south by the Black and Azov seas. The coastline with a length of 2835 km is characterized by a strong dissection: a large number of river mouths, estuaries, bays, bays suitable for the construction of seaports. There are few islands, and among them there are almost no large ones. Far into the sea, the Crimean Peninsula juts out, stretched to the west by the Tarkhankut Peninsula, and to the east by the Kerch Peninsula.
It has state borders with 7 countries: in the east and northeast with the Russian Federation (1955 km by land), in the north with Belarus (1084 km), in the west with Poland (542 km), Slovakia (98 km), Hungary (135 km), in the southwest with Romania (608 km) and Moldova (1202 km). Ukraine also borders the Russian Federation and Romania by sea. With the former republics of the USSR (Russian Federation, Moldova, Belarus), the former administrative borders are recognized as state, but with amendments. The delimitation of the land border with the Russian Federation was completed in 2002, an agreement was signed. Concerning the maritime border, controversial issues remain regarding the division of the waters of the Sea of Azov, as well as the Kerch Strait. The Russian Federation insisted on treating them as the internal waters of both states and using them jointly. By signing an agreement on cooperation in the use of the Sea of Azov and the Kerch Strait (December 24, 2003, Kerch), the Russian Federation actually agreed to the division of the Azov-Kerch water area, but under what conditions will the state border pass – along the bottom (Russia’s position) or on the surface of the water ( position of Ukraine) will be determined by later bilateral agreements. The maritime border with Romania has also not been settled: negotiations are underway to determine it in areas near the mouth of the Danube and Snake Island.
Most of the territory has a flat character: 70% are lowlands, 25% are uplands, and only 5% are mountains. The south and southwest of the country are occupied by the Ukrainian Carpathians. Absolute heights – from 120 to 2000 m. The highest point is Mount Hoverla (2061 m above sea level). In the south of the Crimean Peninsula, the Crimean Mountains stretch for 180 km with absolute heights from 70 to 1200 m. The highest peak in the Crimean Mountains is Roman-Kosh (1545 m). The main lowlands are: Black Sea in the south, Pridneprovskaya (on the Left Bank of the Dnieper), Polesskaya, heavily swamped (in the north and northwest), in the extreme west – the Transcarpathian lowland. Extremely picturesque hills with average heights of 170-300 and not higher than 500 m above sea level: in the south-west – Podolsk, in the north-west – Volyn (within its limits stands out the Mazovian Ridge, called “Ukrainian Switzerland”), in the center of the country along the right bank of the Dnieper – Pridnestrovskaya, in the east – the Donetsk Ridge, and in the southeast – Priazovskaya; between the rivers Prut and Dniester lies the Khotyn Upland. The longest rivers (length across the state, km): Dnieper (981), Southern Bug (806), Psel (717), Dniester (705), Seversky Donets (672), Goryn (659), Desna (591). The Dnieper is the third largest river in Europe after the Volga and the Danube, known since antiquity, mentioned in the writings of travelers under the names Dinapris, Borisfen, Ouzu, and in Slavic chronicles as Slavutich. It has 1150 tributaries, the largest of which are: right – Pripyat, Teterev, Ingulets; left – Desna, Sozh, Vorskla, Psyol, Sula, etc. It has 1150 tributaries, the largest of which are: right – Pripyat, Teterev, Ingulets; left – Desna, Sozh, Vorskla, Psyol, Sula, etc. It has 1150 tributaries, the largest of which are: right – Pripyat, Teterev, Ingulets; left – Desna, Sozh, Vorskla, Psyol, Sula, etc.
Population of Ukraine
According to the All-Ukrainian Population Census (December 5–14, 2001), 48.4 million people lived in the country.
According to Countryaah, Ukraine is the fifth most populous state in Europe (after Germany, Great Britain, Italy, France). Before the beginning 1990s The population increased mainly due to natural increase. In 1991, for the first time in many decades, the natural increase became negative, the death rate exceeded the birth rate. In a year, 9 people are born per 1,000 inhabitants, 16 die. In 1991-2002, the number of inhabitants of Ukraine decreased by 3.9 million people. This is one of the highest rates and absolute indicators of population decline in Europe over the past decade. The main causes of depopulation: the consequences of the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (April 1986), the oversaturation of the country with “dirty industries”, the socio-economic crisis of the transition period, the decline in living standards, mass emigration. Average life expectancy – 67 years (62 years for men and 73 for women); According to this indicator, Ukraine ranks 52nd in the world.
The sex structure of the population has been stable for many years: 47% of men and 53% of women. The age structure is typical for Europe: the average (calculated) age is 37 years, and it is increasing, the process of population aging is taking place. The group of young ages (under 16) includes 22.4% of the population; 22% are people of retirement age, 55.6% are people of working age. The share of pensioners is constantly growing, while the share of children and people of working age is decreasing. In rural areas, the situation is even less favorable: there are more than 1/3 of pensioners.
68% of the population (more than 32 million) live in cities, 32% (15.6 million) live in rural areas. The most urbanized regions are Donetsk – 90%, Lugansk and Dnepropetrovsk regions – more than 80%. The lowest proportion of city dwellers is in the western regions – in Transcarpathian, Ternopil, Ivano-Frankivsk, Chernivtsi.
The working age is defined by law for men from 16 to 59 years old, for women – from 16 to 54 years old, respectively, the retirement age is 60 and 55 years. The number of labor resources is estimated at about 30 million people.
The ethnic composition of the population is dominated by Ukrainians – 77.8% of the total population (37.5 million people), 22% – other ethnic groups: Russians 17.1% (8.3 million people), Belarusians (275.8 thousand people.), Moldovans (258.6 thousand people), Bulgarians (about 204.6 thousand), Poles (144.1 thousand), Hungarians (156.6 thousand people), Crimean Tatars (248, 2 thousand people). Russians and 20 other ethnic groups in Ukraine belong to national minorities. However, they make up the majority in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (67% of the population), in the Donbass, Kharkiv and Zaporozhye regions. The number of Jews since the previous census (1989) has decreased from 500 thousand to 103.6 thousand people. Due to active emigration to Israel in the 1990s. Outside of Ukraine (in the Russian Federation, USA, Canada, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Romania, Poland, Brazil and Argentina), 11-15 million ethnic Ukrainians live.
The official language is Ukrainian. According to the 2001 census, almost 70% of Ukrainians consider Ukrainian to be their mother tongue. The Constitution of Ukraine guarantees the free development, use and protection of the Russian language and other languages of national minorities. The majority of believers in Ukraine are Christians: Orthodox (51.6% of the population), Catholics; There are Jews, Muslims, etc.