Geography of Uganda
The climate of Uganda is subequatorial, softened by a significant height of the surface. Daytime temperatures in most areas range from 27-29°C to 16-18°C. With the exception of a small area in the far northeast and patches in the northwest, Uganda receives a significant amount of rainfall, which allows farmers to harvest two crops a year. Almost everywhere, on average, approx. 1000 mm of precipitation per year, and in the south, in areas adjacent to the lake. Victoria, and in the west in the Rwenzori mountains – over 1500 mm. The heaviest rains fall in the south in March and September, and about a month earlier in the north. Wet and dry seasons are clearly defined.
The southern part of the country is included in the zone of tropical rainforests, but in the last hundred years they have been largely reduced due to plowing. The northern regions are dominated by savannahs. On the territory of the plateau, the vegetation cover is mosaic, tall-grass communities of purple clover, or elephant grass, and groves of mvuli trees are often found. In the northeast, conditions are close to semi-desert; dry thorny bushes, acacias and euphorbias are characteristic. In the swamps around the lakes there are thickets of papyrus and reeds.
The animal world of the country is also rich. The plains are characterized by zebra, oribi and eland, as well as a number of other animals. Elephants, buffaloes and hippos are found in the lake areas. Even near populated areas you can meet lions, leopards and crocodiles. There was a time when Uganda could boast of many well-managed protected areas. The most famous national parks are Murchison Falls (or Kabarega) and Queen Elizabeth (or Rwenzori). In the southwest of the country there is a faunal reserve of gorillas. In the 1970s and 1980s, the protected areas suffered massive damage from squatters and poachers.
population and society. According to the 1991 census, 16.7 million people lived in the country. The population growth rate since 1969 has been 2.5% per year. 4/5 of the population lives in the south of the country, the most densely populated coastal areas of the lake. Victoria. The rest of the population lives in the northern regions, which occupy 2/5 of the country’s area. The average population density is 90 people per 1 sq. km. km. The majority of foreigners, whose number does not exceed 4%, come from neighboring countries. In 1991, the birth rate was 52 per 1,000 people, the death rate was 17. Life expectancy was reduced to 48 years. Young people under the age of 17 make up 54% of the population. In 1999, the population of Uganda was estimated at 21.6 million.
Rural population of Uganda
According to Countryaah, 87% of the country’s population is concentrated in rural areas. Most of them do not live in villages, but in small isolated farms, usually including 5-6 people – the peasant himself, his wife or wives, unmarried children and parents. There are large regional differences in rural population density. In some, mainly southern, regions, it is so high that there is a shortage of land for self-sufficiency in agricultural products.
Urban population of Uganda
Although the urban population has doubled since independence to 13%, for Africa this rather low figure indicates a small influx of rural residents into the cities. Kampala, the only major city in Uganda (774.2 thousand inhabitants in 1991), is its spiritual and business center. The most important industrial center is Jinja (65.2 thousand inhabitants), located in the place where the Victoria Nile flows from the lake. Victoria. Other relatively large cities are Mbale (54 thousand), Masaka (49.6 thousand), Mpigi (42.8 thousand) and Mbarara (41 thousand).
Racial and class composition. Africans make up almost the entire population of Uganda. Non-Africans reached their maximum number in 1959, when they accounted for slightly more than 1% of the country’s population, which then amounted to 6.4 million people. In this society, three categories of the population could be distinguished. Europeans, overwhelmingly British, occupied the highest administrative posts and headed the largest companies. Before the decision to support African small farms in the early 1920s, Europeans owned large agricultural plantations. Indians who began to migrate from their homeland to Uganda from the 1880s and their descendants occupied the position of employees in the middle level of the state apparatus, owned small cotton gins and were engaged in retail trade and handicrafts. Two Indian families Madhvani and Mehta managed to create entire industrial empires. When the country became independent, 77,000 Indians in Uganda were offered a choice between British and Ugandan citizenship. In 1972 Indians were expelled from Uganda.
At the bottom of the social hierarchy were Africans. The colonial authorities cared little about their education, they could only engage in petty trade. Since Africans had to deal more with Indians in their daily lives – petty officials, shopkeepers and cotton buyers, they were more hostile to Indians than to Europeans.
In Ugandan society, respect for traditional social values has been preserved. It is an honorable duty for Ugandans to take care of their extended families. Many residents still do not recognize equality between men and women. Feminists oppose polygamous marriages, but most Ugandans are of the opinion that a wealthy man can have multiple wives. However, laws are gradually being changed to give only men the right to inherit land and, in the event of a divorce, keep their children. It is customary to wear European clothes everywhere; Ugandans prefer to wear traditional robes on holidays. Even Christians participate in many rituals associated with local traditional worship.