The official name is the Republic of San Marino (Republica di San Marino). Located in the southern part of Europe. The area is 61.2 km2, the population is 27.7 thousand people. (2002 estimate). The official language is Italian, while Latin remains the official language. The capital is the city of San Marino (4.3 thousand people, 1993). Public holiday – Day of San Marino and Republic Day on September 3 (from 301). The monetary unit is the euro (since 2002, before that the Italian lira).
Member of the UN (since 1992), Council of Europe, FAO, IMF, UNESCO, etc.
Geography of San Marino
Located between 12°25′ East longitude and 43°46′ North latitude. It has no access to the sea, being an enclave between the Italian regions of Emilia-Romagna and Marche, 20 km from the Adriatic coast. The landscape is hilly. The “core” of the country’s territory is Mount Titano (755 m). Numerous outcrops of groundwater give rise to small rivers (Auza, Masano, San Marino). There are mineral springs. The soils are fertile brown and humus-calcareous. The flora is represented by thickets of evergreen shrubs – maquis (gorse, myrtle, laurel, pistachios, etc.) and many types of essential oil plants (rosemary, sage, thyme, lavender, basil, etc.). There are small oak and chestnut groves. Fossil resources are allocated stocks of building stone and sulfur. The climate is temperate subcontinental (average temperature in January is -2°С, in July +30°С).
Population of San Marino
According to Countryaah, in recent decades, the influx of people into San Marino has exceeded emigration from the country. At the same time, ok. 13 thousand people of the total population live abroad. Ethnic composition – Sanmarinians, Italians. The spoken language is Italian (one of the dialects of the Tuscan dialect). Birth rate 10.64%, infant mortality 6.09 people. per 1000 newborns (2002 estimate). Average life expectancy – 81.3 years, incl. men – 77.8 years, women – 85.2 years. Sex and age structure of the population: 0-14 years 16.1% (ratio of men and women – 1.06: 1), 15 – 64 years 67.5% (0.95: 1), 65 years and older 16.4% ( 0.76:1). The overall male to female ratio is 0.93:1. 96% of the population aged 10 and over can read and write, incl. among men – 97%, among women – 95% (1976 estimate). Urban population 90.5%.
History of San Marino
San Marino is the oldest of the currently existing states of Europe and the only one of the city-states of the Apennine Peninsula that retained its independence after the unification of Italy in 1861. According to legend, it was founded as an early Christian community in 301 by a stonemason Marino, who fled from the persecution of Emperor Diocletian. In the first centuries of its existence, it was under the protectorate of the Duchy of Urbino, in 855 it gained independence, which it defended many times in internecine wars. Gradually expanding due to the purchase of land from the surrounding rulers, it established itself within its modern borders from 1463. The country’s independence was recognized in 1631 by the papal throne, and in 1796 it was observed by Napoleon Bonaparte. In the 1830s-50s. San Marino served as a political asylum for many fighters for the unification of Italy, incl. for G. Garibaldi. In 1862, she concluded a Treaty of Friendship and Economic Cooperation with the Italian state, which was subsequently revised and expanded several times. In the 1st World War she participated on the side of the Entente. In the 2nd World War, while maintaining neutrality, she sheltered approx. 200 thousand refugees from Italy and other European countries.
Science and culture of San Marino
The education system is being built according to the 5 + 3 + 5 scheme, which includes compulsory primary and secondary education for children aged 6 to 14 years. There is a university in the capital (50 students).
The country has a great cultural heritage (architectural and historical monuments of the Middle Ages, museums, a library, a repository of ancient documents, an art gallery, etc.). Many ancient holidays are preserved.