The official name is the Republic of Niger (Republique du Niger, Republic of Niger). Located in West Africa. The area is 1267 thousand km2, the population is 11.3 million people. (2002). The official language is French. The capital is the city of Niamey (700 thousand people, 2002). National holiday – Proclamation of the Republic on December 18 (since 1958). The monetary unit is the African franc (equal to 100 centimes). Member of the UN (since 1960), AU (since 1963), associate member of the EU, etc.
Geography of Niger
It is located between 0°06′ and 16° east longitude, 1D37′ and 23°33′ north latitude. Has no access to the sea. It borders Algeria and Libya to the north, Chad to the east, Nigeria to the south, Benin and Burkina Faso to the southwest, and Mali to the west. Most of the country is located in the Sahara, the south – in the Sahel. The surface is flat with a height of 200-500 m. In the central part – the Air plateau, in the northwest – the Mangeni and Jado plateaus, in the southeast – Lake Chad. The only major river is the Niger River in the southwest of the country. Red-brown, reddish-brown soils are common, there are sandy desert soils, ferruginous, on rocky plateaus and the Tenera desert, there is practically no soil cover. Deposits of coal (4.5 million tons), uranium ores (200 thousand tons), phosphorites (520 million tons), iron ore (650 million tons), tin ores, tungsten, tantalum, copper-molybdenum ores, gold, manganese, polymetallic ores. The climate is hot and dry. In the north it is tropical desert (rainfall is less than 100 mm per year), in the south it is subequatorial (rainfall is up to 800 mm per year). The average January temperatures are +20-24°С, May +32-34°С. Most of the country is occupied by deserted savannah, semi-deserts and deserts, in the south and south-west there are mainly savannahs. In the south, animals characteristic of the savannas live – elephants, antelopes, giraffes, hippos, cheetahs, jackals, hyenas. the south and southwest are predominantly savannas. In the south, animals characteristic of the savannas live – elephants, antelopes, giraffes, hippos, cheetahs, jackals, hyenas. the south and southwest are predominantly savannas. In the south, animals characteristic of the savannas live – elephants, antelopes, giraffes, hippos, cheetahs, jackals, hyenas.
Population of Niger
Population density 9 people. per 1 km2. Average annual growth rate 3% (2000-02). Birth rate 50%, mortality 22%, infant mortality 122 people. per 1000 newborns. According to Countryaah, life expectancy is 42 years. Sex and age structure: 0-14 years – 48% (ratio of men and women – 1.04); 15-64 years – 50% (0.96); 65 years and older – 2% (1.1). The ratio of men and women in the entire population is 1. Among the adult population, 85.5% are illiterate (men – 79%, women – 92%). There are more than 20 ethnic groups: Hausa (56%), Djerma (22%), Fulbe (8.5%), Tuareg (8%), Ka-Nuri (4.3%), etc. Languages – French, from local The most common languages are Hausa and Djerma. 80% of the population are Muslims, the rest adhere to traditional beliefs and profess Christianity.
Economy of Niger
Niger is one of the least developed countries in the world. GDP $2 billion, or $180 per capita (2001). The average annual GDP growth rate in 2000–01 was 3.1% (2000 minus 1.4%, 2001 plus 7.6%). GDP structure: agriculture 41%, industry 17%, services 42%. 90% of the economically active population is employed in agriculture, 6% in industry and trade, and 4% in state structures. Inflation – 4.2% (2001). Agriculture is the backbone of the Niger economy and is completely dependent on the amount of rainfall. Droughts cause great damage to agricultural production. The main export agricultural crop is peanuts (average annual harvest in 2000–2000, 100,000 tons). Vegetables are also of export importance. Food crops are represented by millet (1.7 million tons), sorghum (435 thousand tons), rice (70 thousand tons), and cassava. Nomadic animal husbandry is developed. Livestock (2001): cattle – 2.1 million, sheep – 4.1 million, goats – 6.2 million, donkeys – 450 thousand, camels – 400 thousand, horses – 90 thousand. Fishing gives approx. 4 thousand tons of products. Since the 1970s the mining industry is developing (development of uranium deposits – about 3.5 thousand tons of concentrate, gold – 500 kg, coal – 170 thousand tons, cassiterite – 20 tons of tin concentrate, table salt – 3 thousand tons, gypsum – 2 thousand tons). t). There are enterprises in the food and light industries: peanut butter, flour, breweries, cotton gins, textiles, and tanneries. There are facilities for the production of cement, paints. Approx. 220 million kWh of electricity, covering approx. 1/2 internal needs. The main mode of transport is road (10,100 km, incl. 798 km paved) and water (300 km along the Niger River, access to the sea is possible from the city of Gaya to the seaport of Port Harcourt). There are no railroads. There are 26 airports, incl. 9 modern class. State budget (2002, million US dollars): revenues – 320, expenses – 320. External debt 1 billion US dollars, deductions for its repayment of 8.8% of export earnings (2001). Foreign trade turnover in 2001 577 million US dollars: export 246 million US dollars (uranium concentrate – 65%, livestock, livestock products, vegetables); imports — USD 331 million (consumer goods, machinery, equipment, vehicles, petroleum products, grain crops). Main trading partners: in terms of exports – France (43.4%), Nigeria (35%), Spain (4.5%), USA (3.9%); imports – France (16.8%), Côte d’Ivoire (13.4%), USA (9.6%), Nigeria (7.6%).