The official name is the Principality of Monaco (La Principante de Monaco, The Principality of Monaco). Located in the southwestern part of Europe on the Mediterranean coast, it is surrounded by the territory of France from the land (border 4.4 km). The area is 1.95 km2, of which 0.4 km2 is due to the development of the seashore (in terms of its territory, Monaco surpasses only the Vatican). Population – 31.987 thousand (2002). The official language is French, Monegasque, Italian and English are also common. The capital is the city of Monaco (more than 3 thousand people). The national holiday is the Day of the Princes (National Day) on November 19th. The monetary unit is the euro (since January 2002).
Member of the UN, UNESCO, World Health Organization, International Atomic Energy Agency, World Intellectual Property Organization, etc.
Geography of Monaco
Monaco is marked on the map of Europe by a point with coordinates 43°44′ north latitude 47°24′ east longitude. The country is located on the coast of the Ligurian Sea, the coastline is rocky, indented with bays. Monaco is located in the Alpine fold zone. The highest mountains are Mont Atel (1149 m) and Monte Grammondo (1377 m). There is no agricultural land in the country. The soil is brown, in the mountains it is brown. The vegetation belongs to the common Mediterranean group—oaks, boxwood, cedar, and others. Among the cultivated trees are olive, citrus, and so on. There are no large animals preserved in Monaco. Coastal waters are poor in fish, due to the lack of suitable spawning grounds. The climate of Monaco is typical Mediterranean (January +8°С, July +24°С). The annual amount of precipitation is 1340 mm.
Population of Monaco
According to Countryaah, the population growth rate is 0.45% (2002), the birth rate is 9.6‰, the death rate is 12.91‰, infant mortality is 5.73 people. per 1000 newborns. Average life expectancy – 79 years, incl. women – 83 years, men – 75 years. Age structure of the population: from 0 to 14 years old – 15.5%, 15-64 years old – 62.1%, 65 years and older – 22.4%. In general, despite the relatively high birth rate for a European state (1.76 children per family), population growth is due to a constant influx of migrants.
The population of Monaco represents 125 nationalities. The largest groups: French – 12.8 thousand (47%), Monegasques – 5.1 thousand (16%), Italians – 5.1 thousand (16%). The original inhabitants are Monegasques. The Monegasque language was based on French, Provencal, and also Genoese. The country has a social system, in many respects similar to the French one (pensions, health insurance, maternity protection system, family benefits). Retirement for men and women is 65 years (55 years for women with 3 children). In con. 1990s the pension was $1,345 per month. By religion, 90% of the inhabitants are Catholics.
History of Monaco
On the territory of Monaco, from 1419, the rule of the house of Grimaldi begins. In 1814, the principality gained independence and has been in the orbit of French influence ever since. Monaco is a constitutional hereditary monarchy (principality). According to the Constitution of 1962, the Principality of Monaco is a sovereign and independent state, acting within the framework of the basic principles of international law and special agreements with France. Administratively, the state consists of 4 merged districts-cities: Monaco, Monte Carlo, La Condamine and Fontvieille.
The head of state is the prince (since 1949 Prince Rainier III of the Grimaldi dynasty). Legislative power belongs to the prince and the National Council (a parliament consisting of 18 deputies elected for 5 years by direct universal suffrage). Monegasques have the right to vote. Executive power is exercised by the Government Council headed by the Minister of State. According to the 1918 treaty between Monaco and France, 2 out of 4 seats in the Government Council are occupied by representatives of France (including the post of Minister of State). In reality, power is almost entirely concentrated in the hands of the prince. Under the prince, there is a Crown Council (7 people). The judicial system consists of courts of first instance, magistrates and appellate courts. Members of the Supreme Court (5 members and 2 assessors) are appointed by the prince for 4 years. The main political organizations are the National Democratic Union, the National Union for the Future of Monaco and the Union for the Support of the Monegasque Family. There is an association of entrepreneurs and trade unions in the country. There is no conscription in Monaco. Officially, relations with the Russian Federation have been established at the consular level.
Economy of Monaco
Monaco is developing at a sustainable pace and provides its inhabitants with a high standard of living (national statistics are not available, so all quantitative estimates are approximate). In 1999, the GDP was $870 million ($27 million per capita). At the same time, in the 1990s GDP growth rates (1.1% on average) lagged somewhat behind population growth rates. Since the mid 1990s. there has been an increase in the budget deficit, which in 1999 amounted to 52 million dollars. This prompted the government to take a number of measures to modernize and diversify all sectors of the economy.
The preferential tax regime allows large international banks to use Monaco to create a network of banks and financial groups (in the late 1990s – 47 banks and 5 financial groups). After the removal of restrictions from France (in 1987), the banking system of Monaco is growing rapidly, especially at the expense of capital from Southeast Asia. At the same time, the government assured that its confidentiality would be preserved and it would not allow the laundering of “dirty” money. This sector of the economy brings almost half of all government revenues. Tourism is another important industry that generates a quarter of government revenue. In 1998 the country was visited by 278 thousand tourists. Since the 1990s business tourism is developing in the country.
The development of industry is closely connected with the maintenance of the tourist complex and financial institutions. In 2001, the industry consisted of enterprises in the chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries (45%), enterprises for the production of plastics (23%), printing goods (6%), mechanical workshops (5%), textile enterprises (3%), food (2 %), others (4%). The state provides financial and fiscal benefits to owners if they open their enterprises in the territory of the principality.
Monaco has 1,100 different trading companies and 400 wholesale companies. In total, trade, the hotel sector and restaurants account for 40% of business turnover. The country has monopolies in the sale of tobacco, telephone and postal services. More than half of the total workforce employed in enterprises and institutions are residents of neighboring regions of France and Italy, although in con. 1990s Monaco has registered an unemployment rate of 3%.
Science and culture of Monaco
School education covers all children from 6 to 16 years old (the first stage is 5 years old, the second stage is 7 years old). In all schools, education is carried out mainly according to the program adopted in France. Some features: religious course, history of Monaco, Monegasque language; English has been intensively studied since the 6th grade. 6.3% of the budget is spent on education.
In Monaco, there is an oceanographic museum, an exotic garden with a collection of cacti, a large park, a rose garden of Princess Grace, a Clockwork Puppet Museum, and museums of the Prince’s Palace. Of the architectural monuments – the La Misericord chapel, the pseudo-Romanesque Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, the Cathedral of Monaco with the princely tomb, the Church of St. Devota, the Monte Carlo Casino, the Opera House (architect Ch. Garnier).