I have long planned to visit the countries of the Balkans, but the tense political situation of the 1990s and the wars as a result have made me give up. After the situation calmed down, I started visiting the countries in the region. The last two countries I visited were Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro.
During a nearly 1,500-kilometer drive, I visited large parts of the two, small, interesting and very beautiful, countries of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro in the Balkans. My journey began and ended in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
History of Bosnia and Herzegovina in brief
In ancient times, according to areacodesexplorer, present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina was part of what was once Illyria and the Roman Empire.
In the 6th century AD, South Slavic tribes moved into the area from the north
8th century Bosnia is first mentioned in scripture
Bosnia became an independent kingdom under King Tvrtko Kotromanic´ but weakened by internal strife Turkish attacks
In 1463, most of Bosnia was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire
the region of Herzegovina was also defeated by the Turks and many Bosnians subsequently converted to Islam, partly voluntarily
In 1831, the Bosnian nobility revolted against the Ottoman Empire
1832 The Ottomans suppressed the Bosnian uprising and the Herzegovina region gained autonomous status
In 1878 it was decided that the Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy would “occupy and administer Bosnia-Herzegovina on behalf of the Turkish sultan” at the Berlin Congress.
In 1908, the province was formally annexed by Austria-Hungary
on June 28, the “Scots in Sarajevo” fell when Gavrilo Princip, a member of Young Bosnia, killed the Archduke and Crown Prince Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie von Chotek. The event triggered the so-called “Black Week”, which a few weeks later resulted in the outbreak of the First World War
Bosnia and Herzegovina became part of the “Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes” under Serbian Regent Aleksandar Karadordević
1929 “Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes” renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers and their followers (Germany, Italy, Hungary and Bulgaria). The country was divided and almost all of Bosnia ended up under the so-called Independent State of Croatia
In 1945, Bosnia became one of six republics of the new Socialist Federation of Yugoslavia
When Yugoslavia began to fall apart, a referendum was held at the turn of the month, February – March on independence. Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats voted for independence. But the Bosnian Serbs did not want to leave Yugoslavia. On April 6 and 7, Bosnia was recognized as an independent state by the United States and the then EC (today the EU). But by then the Bosnian Serbs had already proclaimed their own republic, and the war was a fact. The war lasted for just over three and a half years. It claimed the lives of at least 100,000 people and forced half of the country’s inhabitants to flee
When the Balkan War ended through the so-called “Dayton Agreement”, Bosnia became an internationally monitored nation in two roughly equal parts; Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska. The agreement also meant that the political institutions were based on a division between the three dominant ethnic groups. Responsibility for the country’s politics and economy would be gradually transferred from the international community to new Bosnian institutions. Nationalist parties won big in the first elections after the peace