While the lyrics of Tejeda, Labardén, Varela, López and Luca, despite the changing times and literary addresses had remained substantially loyal to the influence of the Spanish Renaissance, Echeverría marks, after 1830, the beginning of the emancipation of American poetry: not only did he introduce the motifs of romantic poetry into Argentine literature, but he adapted them to the new environment and new spiritual needs, he awakened the new artistic consciousness; and its historical importance appears to be very great today. Another poet, Josè Mármol, achieved greater popularity at that time for his vehement inspiration and his easy versification: his invectives against Rosas are Byronianly powerful. Rivera Indarte, Bartolomé Miter, an appreciated translator of Dante, and Juan María Gutiérrez also cultivated art of verse; but their work in this field has above all importance as it was forerunner and served as a training experience for the poets of the following period: Carlos Guido y Spano, refined artist, in whom Hellenic influences felt through French literature appear; Riccardo Gutiérrez, in which Christian sentiments and romantic inspiration merge; Olegario Andrade, a poet too influenced by Victor Hugo, but with great qualities of his own imagination, an eloquent interpreter of Argentine liberalism; Rafael Obligado, cantor who elaborated the themes of the popular muse in perfect stanzas; and finally Pedro R. Palacios, known under the pseudonym of Almafuerte, a writer of little culture, but with a deep human feeling. The poems of all these authors have been collected in volumes, and their best compositions can be read in the anthologies of Puig, Romagosa and Pagano. Lesser known rhymers, but whose work is worthy of consideration, were also Carlos Encina, Adán Quiroga, Gervasio Méndez, García Merou, Martín Coronado, Fernández Espíro.
According to Act-test-centers, in the epoch that followed and which still continues today, a new artistic direction gradually prevailed: that of the so-called modernism of which Rubén Darío is the leader. In Argentina it found its greatest expression in the vast and multifaceted work of Leopoldo Lugones. But alongside Lugones, many other lyric poets of the last two generations (see the anthologies of M. Ugarte, EM Barreda, Morales and Quiroga, J. Noé) are worthy of particular importance, such as Enrique Banchs, who collected the voices of the Spanish primitives; F. Félix de Amador who turned from a symbolist tendency to a poem of pure Christian inspiration (Vita abscondida, La Copa de David); Fernández Moreno, outspoken Spanish temper, realist (Provincial Intermediate, Argentine field); Ricardo Gutiérrez, grandson of the author of Lazaro, a mystical poet himself, full of lyrical serenity (La ciudad en ruinas, La flecha en el vacio), Artulo Capdevila, romantic-biblical, who also boasts good works of prose and theater; Arturo Marasso; Edmondo Montagne; Rafael de Diego; Ezequiel Martínez Estrada. Poets of classical tendency are Diego Fernández Espiro, Calixto Oyuela, Eduardo Talero, Leopoldo Daíz; and Evaristo Carliego, poet of the humble life, disappeared, still very young; Pedro Mario Delheye, crepuscular; Juan P. Calon, meditative and bitter. Among the most interesting promises for Argentine poetry are now José Pedroni, Luis L. Franco, Horacio Rega Molina, R. Gonzales Tunón, Argentina Bufano, F. López Merino, L. Marechal, Argentina Molinari.
A modern country, in which women largely participate in all forms of activity, Argentina has had and still has numerous poetesses: for example. Alfonsina Storni, Margherita Abella Caprile, Emilia Bertolé, María Carnelli, Alicia Domínguez, Raquel Adler.
Finally, while a few, such as Argentina Lagorio (Las tres respuestas), attempted the prose poem with flattering results, a large group of poets continued to seek the sources of their inspiration in national folklore, drawing lyrical compositions and above all rich narratives of color, such as Carlos Molina Maney (A punta de lanza), Ataliva Herrera (Las Vírgines del Sol), Martínez Paiva, and, among the “nativists” Miquel Argentina Camino (Chacayaleras, Chaquiras, Nuevas Chacayaleras) and R. Guijena Sánchez, who hopes for the return of the ancient coplas of northern Argentina.
The Italian influence. – In comparison with the Spanish and, especially, French influence, the influence of Italian literature has been quite scarce for a long time. But in recent years a more lively and broader interest should be noted. We will only remember the faithful and loving Leopardi translations by Calixto Oyuela, the footnotes to Leopardi and Carducci by the director of Nosotros Roberto F. Giusti, the versions of the Barbarian Odes by B. Contreras, the studies on the Renaissance by Mariano Argentina Barrenechea, the essays on Leopardi, Foscolo and Dante by Argentina Lagorio, the essays on D’Annunzio by Victoria Ocampo and Arturo Marasso, the beautiful book by Homero Guglielmini on Pirandello. Carlos Ibarguren lovingly dealt with Rome and its history and Rafael F. Arrieta evoked the figures of Maria and Giovanni Pascoli in Las hermanas tutelares. Fervid efforts to promote a more active cultural exchange between Italy and Argentina have played, as translators and popularizers, Folco Testena, G. Agenore Magno, L. Sorrentino.