Argentina Education

Elementary education. – During the colonial era, first grade education was given in the family, in the colleges of religious orders, in the schools attached to the churches and in some schools maintained by the municipalities. At that time four names became famous for their work on education: among the lay Hermandarias, in the century. XVII, and Vértiz, viceroy in the second half of the century. XVIII, and among the ecclesiastics the bishop San Alberto in Córdoba and the canon Maciel in Buenos Aires.

According to Ehuacom, the revolution gave a great impetus to teaching, which made considerable progress at the time of Rivadavia (1821-1827): the Lancaster mutual teaching system was then introduced, not only because it was considered the best, but also because it was more convenient for the little prosperous public finances. At the same time, the Sociedad de Beneficencia was founded, who assumed the teaching of women. After the fall of Rivadavia, teaching began to decline in most of the country: in 1830 there were only 202 schools with 223 teachers. Only the province of Entre Rios, governed by General Urquiza, continued to care for him, and even founded a national college in Concepción del Uruguay, as well as 47 schools. During the Rosas dictatorship, only a few schools were maintained in the main cities. With the fall of Rosas (1852), education flourished again: while in 1850 there were 205 schools, in 1860 they had risen to 593. Despite the difficulties of the war with Paraguay, the presidency of Miter took great care of education, and in 1870 the schools were 1082, including those opened by Sarmiento, who, having risen to the presidency in 1868, entrusted the Ministry of public education to Nicolás Avellaneda, who was to succeed him later. The period of Sarmiento (1868-1874) and Avellaneda (1874-1880) is the one of greatest activity. The law on public education dates back to 1884, followed the following year by the regulation, which made it free and compulsory for all children between six and fourteen years of age, and which established the following teaching subjects: reading and writing, arithmetic (the four operations with integers and knowledge of the metric system and the law on coins, weights and measures), particular geography of the Republic and notions of universal geography; particular history of the Republic and notions of general history; national language; morals and etiquette; notions of hygiene; notions of mathematical, physical and natural sciences; elements of design and vocal music; gymnastics; knowledge of the national constitution. For girls, female jobs and the domestic economy are also obligatory, and for males the simpler military exercises and evolutions; in rural schools, notions of agriculture and livestock farming.

National primary education has been directed by the Consejo Nacional de Educación since 1881, composed of a president and four councilors, appointed by the President of the Republic, and assisted for the technical part by four general inspectors, and by a large number of inspectors and visitors.. The council maintained, in 1926, 10,603 schools with 1,302,317 pupils and 45,265 teachers.

Article 50 of the Argentine constitution prescribes that provinces, to be such, must maintain schools; but, in addition to this, the national government contributes to the expenses incurred by the provinces with the so-called school grant which is ⅓, ⅔ or ¾ of the amount allocated in the budgets of the provinces, according to the state of their finances. Furthermore, since 1905, under the Láinez law, the national government has established national schools in the provinces. In 1926, they were 3045, with 226.806 pupils and 5976 teachers, against 4700, with 605.948 pupils and 21.122 masters, at the expense of the provinces. The national government also maintains the training courses (elementary schools) attached to the normal schools, which in 1926 were 84, fourteen kindergartens, also annexed to the normal schools, and four annexed to institutions for the deaf-mute; all these schools were attended in that year by 32,396 children, led by 1387 teachers. The schools of the national territories also depend on the National Council, which number 847 with 74,434 pupils and 2605 teachers.

The cost of primary education was $ 132,761,002.47 in 1926. For it, in addition to the figures allocated in the national budget, 20% of the proceeds from the sale of national land, a percentage of certain taxes, the registration tax, all the fines for violations of the laws on education and that of weights and measures, stamped paper, etc., and all those others to which the law does not give other destinations, the interests of a permanent fund consisting of 15% of all the aforementioned proceeds, the inheritance tax, the assets of dead persons without heirs, 25% of what the Jockey Club receives on bets, donations, etc.

Primary schools from 1810 to 1926 increased as follows:

Middle education. – Middle education is given in national colleges and women’s high schools; the course lasts 5 years, except at the national college attached to the University of Buenos Aires, where the course is 6 years. There are currently 47 national colleges, three of which are female. Two of the latter and 8 men are in Buenos Aires; the other women’s college, together with 12 boys, are in the province of the same name.

The Argentine national colleges aim to complete the young man’s education and prepare him for university. These aims cannot be said to be fully achieved so far, so much so that the title of bachelor has little value and is not always sufficient for enrollment in university faculties; in fact, among these, some consider it insufficient, and others consider it superfluous; the faculties of law, medicine and engineering have instituted an entrance exam; the engineering faculty also admits graduates from the industrial school, the academy of fine arts, etc.; that of philosophy, candidates who have the title of normal professor or distinguished teacher; that of economic sciences, the commercial experts; the faculty of agronomy and veterinary requires a supplementary admission exam. Nonetheless, the national colleges, from their establishment until 1926, have counted 346,527 members. However, the number of pupils who drop out of their studies is enormous: in 1926, out of a total of 14,726 pupils, 1,355 did not finish the course.

In 1926 15,111 students enrolled, including 2305 women; the Mariano Moreno national college, in the federal capital, had the largest number of members (1874), while the Trelew college in Patagonia had the least number (47). Each pupil in 1926 cost $ 583.48.

In the national colleges not annexed to the universities, 1972 professors taught, who attended about 92% of the lessons.

Normal education is given in normal schools and is divided into courses for tutors (2 years), teachers (4 years) and professors (7 years). The first qualification qualifies to teach in rural schools, the second applies to elementary schools of all kinds, and the third also gives the faculty to become a teacher or director of a normal school.

There are 86 normal schools, of which 11 in the capital and 22 in the province of Buenos Aires. Of these 10 are for professors, 13 for tutors, the remainder for teachers. Normal schools during 1926 enrolled 13,402 pupils, each costing $ 958.44. 2115 professors taught you.

Attached to the normal schools are elementary training schools, which in 1926 were attended by 29,867 children, assisted by 1283 teachers. Fourteen normal schools have kindergartens, attended by 1362 children, assisted by 52 teachers.

The diplomas issued by normal schools, from 1874 to 1926, were 50,188. In 1926 3174 people obtained the master’s degree, 114 that of professor and 144 that of tutor.

The main institutions of the Argentine school system that impart special education are indicated in the following table, the data of which refer to the year 1926.

Private teaching. – A law of 1878 grants official recognition to private teaching, provided that it is given in accordance with certain provisions concerning the program of studies, exams, professors, hygiene, teaching materials, etc.

The following table gives the figures about the private institutions matched.

Argentina Education